Parallel Transformations: Georgium Sidus to Uranus and Political Events during the Romantic Age

By: Jenny Arnold, Smruti Keshani, William King, B Mohammed, Allen Rawl


Rich in culture, arts, and discovery, the Romantic Period was a time of revolutions in politics, science, and literature, uncharacteristic by those of previous generations. Changes, especially those rooted in Great Britain between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, flourished throughout Europe and the Western World. Of the many watershed moments, perhaps the only one of its magnitude during the period, was the discovery of Uranus on March 13, 1781 by self-taught Hanoverian astronomer Friedrich William Herschel .

The discovery of the third largest planet and seventh from the sun had tremendous implications on Great Britain’s scientific and political reputation amidst the competitive French and rebellious colonists in America. Given the name “Georgium Sidus” in honor of King George III of Britain, Uranus stood for regality, achievement, and the permanence of Great Britain and its monarchical family. Georgium Sidus was not only an example Britain’s power within the scientific community, but as an emblem of nationalism for the country and the King. However, as international and local politics began to interfere, a shift in British nationalism began, as evidenced by the corresponding events of the discovery of Uranus. The American Revolution, the French Revolution and the Seven Year’s War proved to be a catalyst for change in Britain and its newly discovered planet. Parallel to the occurrences with Britain’s politics, Georgium Sidus mutated from an honorary title to a satirical mark upon King George III’s rule. Following this trend, the name Georgium Sidus was never officially adopted outside of Great Britain. Other countries in Europe adopted the name “Herschel” for the new planet, in honor of its founder. A transformation of the planet’s name from “Georgium Sidus” to “Uranus” corresponded with an increasingly resentful and rebellious attitude towards the monarchy. As with all history, discoveries and cultural movements become inseparable from the political events of the time period. Science and art of the

Romantic Period was no different; it affected society many ways thought unlikely. In the case of the discovery of Uranus by Herschel, a gradual and curious name change is at face value reflective of only the scientific community involved with its finding. However, upon closer inspection, this nomial controversy is not just a misunderstanding but a direct link to the politics of the time and can be evidenced as a corresponding timeline to the societal views of King George III and Great Britain.

The State of Politics Before Georgium Sidus

King George III, King of Great Britain 1738- 1820.
King George III, King of Great Britain 1738- 1820.
King George III came to rule Britain in 1760 with a strong desire to establish a government of royal power – an Absolute Monarch. In 1765, the Stamp Act was instated by him upon American colonists to generate revenue and subsequently decrease the debt from the French and Indian War . Taxes were placed on every written legal document and publication and specifically on marriage licenses, playing cards, newspapers, and magazine articles (Murrin). Rebellion due to these burdensome taxes arose. Colonists, arguing that they had no representation within the British government, thought the taxes to be unfair and disproportionately allocated. Thus, the Stamp Act became the catalytic discontent to the start of the American Revolution.

As stated by Colley, at the onset of the American Revolution, William Herschel’s interest in astronomy began to expand. Hershel, brought up as a musician, was studying music theory when he came upon a book that discussed exploration of the skies. His interest grew until eventually astronomy took priority over music.

However, unsatisfied with the astronomical technology and tools available, Herschel subsequently became inspired to construct his own instruments. He quickly created his own reflector telescopes with specula and magnifying power far superior to those of his time. After just a year, Herschel spotted the planet Saturn for the first time in 1774 (Maunder). While Herschel’s name and work began attracting attention in the scientific community, his nation’s peace became endangered. Support for the war against the colonies was controversial. While the colonists angered Parliament and the British government by their decreasing cooperation, the non-aristocrats viewed their argument from an economic standpoint. They saw the American colonies as a “highly profitable Anglo-American trade” (Colley) route, which if the colonists claimed for themselves, would damage the way the British Empire’s economy functioned. Others believed that to rebel against a monarch was a sin and that the Empire’s order and control must be maintained in Parliament. (Colley)

As the American Revolution began to unfold, the victory of battles and rebellions by either side began to tally off. In the meantime, some communities began to fear their societies would be left with disorder because the King was solely focused on the fighting front.

Various reform groups, such as the Society for Constitutional Information created in 1780, were “...designed to build public support for political change through the systematic production and distribution of libertarian propaganda” (Colley). However, this effort to implement change in corrupt Britain, like many others, was never implemented as a result of the Gordon Riots of June 1780, in which a mob rebelled against the government after a bill was passed to “reduce restrictions against Catholics.” As a result, Catholic civilians’ homes and farms were destroyed and followers of Catholicism fell prey to street attacks. ( Although this event occurred due to religious strife, landowners and moderates became frightened of supporting any reform. They feared the potential new ways King George III and his government would find to silence their rebellious voices.
Caroline Herschel Taking Notes as Her Brother William Observes on March 13, 1781, the Night William Discovered Uranus by P. Fouché
Caroline Herschel Taking Notes as Her Brother William Observes on March 13, 1781, the Night William Discovered Uranus by P. Fouché

Meanwhile, Herschel continued to sweep the skies and by 1779, grew increasingly meticulous in his observations, spending his nights recording the movement of the stars. By 1781, with his homemade telescope, Hershel spotted an object that he believed to be a comet. Yet, as Herschel studied it longer and spread the news to Neville Maskelyne royal astronomer, he, and the rest of Britain, soon realized that his new discovery was a planet.

The Discovery of a Planet

At the time of the discovery of Georgium Sidus in 1781, the American Revolutionary War was coming to a close. During this year, British troops under Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General George Washington in The Battle of Yorktown and gave the colonists their freedom. However, news of their defeat did not reach Europe until much later. As a result, the naming of the newly discovered planet was not influenced by Britain’s defeat. Instead, the bravery and confidence of King George III was noted. In the eyes of British citizens, King George was a powerful figure who had led the nation through many battles. Many supported and appreciated his determination and perseverance to not give up on the war. Colley states,

"When in March 1782 Lord North’s majority in the Commons fell to nine votes, he resigned, against the wishes of George III. A new administration, formed under Lord Rockingham, was committed to peace with America and moderate constitutional reform at home. When Rockingham died in July 1782, William Petty, Earl of Shelburne, became first lord of the treasury. In November of that year it was he who had the thankless task of concluding peace with the Americans and formally acknowledging their independence and British defeat in the Treaty of Paris."

As conveyed by Colley, King George III did not choose to surrender the war; he held a steadfast belief in the strength of Great Britain. Instead, it was William Petty who decided the end of the war, against the King’s wishes. Although much damage had already been done to his reputation, the King salvaged what he could through his dedication to his country, leading many nationals to overlook opposers and continue to support the King. Thus, the name Georgium Sidus was given to Hershel’s planet. The name represented the monarchy, the King’s everlasting support and funding of astronomy, and Britain’s permanence in the world arena in terms of science and war. However, this name was not popular among countries other than Brit, in which the name Hershel was adopted in honor of its founder.
This support is seen also at the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783, two years after the discovery of Uranus. During this year, William Herschel wrote a letter to Joseph Banks requesting again that his discovered planet to be called Georgium Sidus in honor of the King. In this letter, Herschel expresses his appreciation for King George III's dedication to the arts and sciences, particularly his personal financial support. King George III would continue to support William Herschel after this letter, funding Herschel's 40 foot telescope built in 1785. Herschel clearly conveyed his respect for the monarchy, describing King George III as “the best of kings.” As Great Britain expanded and increased its influence, the rest of Britain’s inhabitants would share this loyalty and dedication to King George III. However, due to political events and wars that would plague the country, his public opinion internationally would not fare as well. Because of this, the name Georgium Sidus, selectively popular in only Britain, would begin to lose its popularity within its home country as well.

French Revolution: Movement Away from the Monarchy

Political Astronoy, William Holland 1805. Satirical description of relationship between political figures of the Romantic Era.
Political Astronoy, William Holland 1805. Satirical description of relationship between political figures of the Romantic Era.

Due to the decrease of political support, Herschel’s discovered planet began to be utilized as a satirical tool against King George III and the rest of the monarchy. An example of such a political satire can be seen to the left depicting the complex politics of the monarchy of the time. According to the British Museum, the image highlights the relationships between major political fiigures of the time. One of the most noteworthy connections that this satire touches on is the relationship between William Pitt and King George III stating that, “This is 'PITTONIAN STAR a star of the first magnitude - he turns continually round the brillant star called the Georgium Sidus - from which he is repell'd by a centrifugal motion...” This indicates that William Pitt had a great deal of influence upon the King, though his power was dependent on King George III. This would become important during the regency crisis that took place between 1788 and 1789. According to The Pictorial History of England During the Reign of George the Third: 1785-1791, beginning in November of 1788, King George III’s mental state began to fail. Though he would recover in time to deal with the atrocities, a result of the French Revolution, society’s view of King George III would be negatively affected. Furthermore, his mental state would suffer other relapses throughout his reign that would cause him to be labeled as mad. This contributed to the loss of support for the name, Georgium Sidus, of the planet discovered by Herschel.
At the same time, other names for the planet were suggested including Herschel, Neptune, and Uranus. The name Herschel, which Lalande proposed, was very popular among other European countries. However as Owen Grenich discusses in his essay, The Naming of Uranus and Neptune, there was a demand from many of the Eastern European countries for a mythological name claiming that it would fit in better with the names of the previously discovered planets. Johann Bode, a well-respected astronomer at the time, suggested the name Uranus. He used several tactics to help get this name implemented as the planet's naming including writing a Latin poem and having a close friend name an element Uranium. This would eventually become the name of the planet though Great Britain would be slow to adopt this name. It would require more political changes of the time, including the French Revolution, to change the opinions of those loyal to the King.

England was affected by the French Revolution like many of the other European countries at the time due to the manifestation of nationalism. The French Revolution followed closely in line with the American Revolution, the first examples of citizens throwing a revolution in the name of their country. News of the opening events of the French Revolution was greeted with enthusiasm by British supporters and detractors. Some saw it as evidence that France was abandoning absolutism for a liberal constitution based on the British model. Enthusiasm among British citizens was most potent among those championing domestic political reform in Britain. For these groups and their associated literary, scientific and political circles, events in France signified a much deeper change in government.
Because England had a parliamentary government instead of autocratic rule, the country did not experience as much backlash as seen by those of other European powers. By giving at least some of their citizens’ legislative power, it kept England from having to deal with numerous rebellions. However, England did not leave completely unscathed; many reformists living in England, such Richard Price and Thomas Paine, would call upon the French Revolution as an example of the reform needed in England.
The French Revolution sought to change society by instilling citizens with power. Though it was not the birth of Republic, the French sought to change their absolute monarchy into a true democracy. In the end, the contradictory and complicated ideas of the French Revolution were mirrored in Great Britain. Both countries were conflicted in what they believed but what they shared was that it brought the citizens into political life.
In Britain, Richard Price, a Welsh moral and political philosopher, delivered a renowned sermon that commemorated the events in France as the dawn of a new era for civilization. The repercussions of the French Revolution seeped its way into British society. An intense debate arose over the legitimacy of the British government and whether or not England should have its own revolution against the increasing corrupt rule of King George III. Literary pamphlets, novels, and poetical works such as Thomas Paine's, Rights of Man, Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Man, and James Mackintosh's Vindiciae Gallicae all convey the growing tension in England.

The Scientific Community Responds to Political Change

Despite the political strife, the scientific communities' admiration for King George III continued to hold out, encouraged by the funding they received from King George. The Royal Society of London and the Academy of Sciences of Paris, even amidst the chaos of war and revolution, kept a peaceful yet conflicting relationship in the eighteenth century; utilizing espionage to gain the upper hand in scientific advancement. For Britain, this meant a chance to advance their science past that of France and bring the British Empire back to the forefront even in the middle of a Revolutionary War.
Maurice Crosland, in his paper Relationships between the Royal Society and the Academie des Sciences in the Late Eighteenth Century states that “There were three major wars, which interrupted communications and the pursuit of a more gentle pattern of life and culture, including science” (26). These three wars were: The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), The American Revolutionary War (1777-1783), and the French Revolution (1789-1815). As these conflicts raged onwards, the scientific organizations of the two fighting countries, Britain and France, kept up regular correspondence and regularly gave honorary memberships to foreigners.
Through these honorary memberships and correspondences, certain advantages could be utilized to advance the state of the nation and the kingdom. One specific case of this was a man named Charles Blagden. In 1783, Blagden travelled to France and relayed French scientific advancements back to Britain and befriended many French scientists, including Lavoisier. Crosland says that “Immediately on publication in 1787 of the book by the French chemists on the new chemical nomenclature, Berthollet sent Blagden a copy. Blagden subsequently conveyed news of its con- tents to Priestley, the great British opponent of the new French chemistry” (28).
This continued resistance to change the name from Georgium Sidus to Uranus among some of the scientific community may be explained not only by the King’s continued funding but also as a show of respect to William Herschel, seen in a letter by Michel Richard De la Lande to the editors of Journal des sçavans, published in European Magazine and London Review (Vol. 15) in 1789. Delalande states, “The giving the name of Uranus however to the planet of M Herschel in which M Bode still persists is an act of ingratitude to the author of that noble discovery and an affront to that august and munificent patron of astronomy the King of Great Britain whose name ought to he preferred to every other if that of the author had not a still more forcible claim on our acknowledgments.” This demonstrates the belief held by scientists that Herschel be given the right to name the planet as he saw fit.


William Herschel’s discovery was one of the most significant in historical times. Richard Holmes, in his book "The Age of Wonder, states that “He [Maskelyne] was also aware that Banks regarded this (the discovery) as a crucial moment in his presidency, and in the fostering of good relations between the Royal Society and the Crown. King George III was particularly fascinated by stars, and particularly keen to outdo the French” (Holmes 99).

The scientific and political implications of the discovery of Uranus were tremendous in their ability to place Britain at the head of the international scientific community. The discovery sparked interest in the rest of the world as catalogues of nebulae and comets and double stars arose, many discovered by William Hershel himself. This allowed Great Britain the opportunity to lead the world in astronomical science. The societal reaches of Uranus were also impressive. Evidenced in poems such as John Keat’s On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer and Lydia Howard Sigourney’s Georgian Planet , inspiration and unprecedented curiosity reached not only scientists and politicians, but commoners as well.

Nevertheless, with great popularity came great controversy and the planet fell victim to notoriously fickle name changes. Throughout the Romantic Period, Great Britain’s wars, whether at home or abroad, had an unexpected affect on the discovery of Uranus. Corresponding almost exactly to the politics of Britain, popularity for King George III, and the discontent of the citizens of Great Britain, Hershel’s discovery saw a transformation from the monarch-loving name, Georgium Sidus to the platonic, yet heroic and traditional name Uranus. The far reaching political influences of the Romantic Era not only witnessed revolutions and changes of alliance, but altered the name of the first planet discovered in historical times.

Because there was always confusion as to what the real name of the planet was, whether it be Georgium Sidus, Hershel, or Uranus, in 1850, the HM Nautical Almanac Office declared Uranus as the official name for the planet previously known as Georgium Sidus, setting the stage for the international adoption of the planet’s accepted name. Eventually, even Britain's scientific community and the loyal followers of King George III came to adopt Uranus as the official name of the planet.

Today, William Hershel's discovery remains one of the greatest in modern civilization. The third largest planet and seventh farthest from the sun is universally known, accepted, and celebrated as Uranus.

Events Leading to the Adoption of "Uranus"

Naming Uranus on Dipity.

Keywords and Further Reading

King George III:


Craik, George Lillie and Charles MacFarlane. The Pictorial History of England During the Reign of George the Third: 1785-1791. Great Britain: C. Knight, 1842.

This book discusses the state of Britain and its people between American Revolutionary War and the Peace of Ameins by combining detailed illustrations of period images and the author’s own text. It gives an account of the first regency crisis that took place between late 1788 and early 1789 beginning on page 282. This was an important event of King George III’s reign as it called into question his mental state and his ability to continue fulfilling his role as King.

Saddi, Nathan B. The Chronicle of the Kings of England. Great Britain: J. Fairburn, 1821.

This book discusses the reigns of all the Kings of Britain from King William of Normandy through King George III’s death. Discussion of King George III’s reign begins on page 249. It describes aspects of King George III’s personal life and it written as if it were telling a story though it relays historically accurate information and cites letters and other historical documents as support for it’s claims.

Walpole, Horace. Memoirs of the Reign of King George the Third (Vol. 2). Great Britain: Bentley, 1845.

This Book gives an account of King George III's reign between the late 1764 and 1767, utilizing addresses, debates, and letters from King George himself and other political figures that were given during the time period. This would give a more intimate look into the minds of the political figures as they were shaping a prosperous England and show how these relationships may have affected the events leading up to the discovery of Uranus.


Black, Jeremy. George III: America's Last King. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Jeremy Black’s book encompasses the life and rule of King George III. It provides an integrative view of the king’s personal conflicts with family, with himself, and his country. Providing insight into his relationship with the 13 colonies, Black describes the conflicting, yet perhaps misunderstood relationship between the King’s engagements in the American colonies. He also cites letters from the King himself to highlight the numerous wars that King George III saw Britain through.

Cannon, John. George III (Very Interesting People). New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

This book is part of a series written by John Cannon called Very Interesting People that discusses the lives of Britain’s most interesting historical figures.It discusses King George III’s life from his early childhood to illness and death as well as how these events affected his reputation and how he is remembered to this day.



Keith, Thomas. A New Treatise on the use of the Globes; or, a Philosophical View of the Earth and Heavens, Chapter IX. New York: Samuel Wood & Sons, 1832.

In Chapter IX “Of the Georgium Sidus, or Herschel, and His Satellites,” a description of the naming of the planet is discussed as well as the
astronomical finding of the planet. Thorough detail is included in the discussion of previous sights of the planet and how it was heavily believed to be a fixed star. Tables and charts are included for further understanding as well as footnotes for further research.

Peck, George D. The Methodist Quarterly Review, Volume 29. New York: Lane and Tippett, 1847.

The race to calculate and mark a map of the motion of Uranus is discussed in Article VIII: “Critical Notices” of this Review. Comparisons between the discoveries made before and after Hershel are explained. A focus in drawn on scientist Bouvard who crossed many challenges when trying to create a table of Uranus because he ignored statistics found before Herschel’s discovery. Hypotheses and comparisons between Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, and the sun are made to figure out the acting forces on the planet.

Ryan, James. The New American Grammar of the Elements of Astronomy, on an Improved Plan. New York: James Ryan, 1825.

Chapter XII of this book is devoted towards explaining the recent and old findings of the planet Uranus. While half of the chapter solely discusses the planet’s characteristics, such as appearance, revolution, rotation, and diameter, the other half relates it to the sun. Its motion around the sun as well as distance from the sun is displayed in a table. Also, details of the satellites around Uranus are discussed.


Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder. New York: Vintage, 2008.

Holmes argues that Herschel’s discovery of the planet Georgium Sidus/ Uranus is the cause of all astronomical interest at the time. He portrays this by tying in his argument with the other scientific discoveries being made throughout the Romantic Period. Holmes goes on to explore other scientific achievements made by William Hershel, such as his 40-foot telescope.

Miner, Ellis D. Uranus: the planets, rings, and satellites. Michigan: Wiley, 1998.

This recently published book about Uranus contains everything there is to know about the planet. A scientific background is not required to understand the findings displayed in the book, however the organization and detail included makes it scholarly for a scientist with an astronomical background. Tables are used to display knowledge of satellites and rings, and illustrations are included from the Voyager 2.

Politics between 1750-1850:

Adolphus, John. The Political State of the British Empire. London: Strand, 1818.

In this text, the author discusses the King’s domestic and foreign possessions of the time. This includes details about the laws passed, the commerce and revenues, the offices and ones serving those spaces, as well as the civil and military accomplishments and activities. As the title indicates, this text explores the British Empire through the filter of politics.

Lawrence, Sire James Henry. On the Nobility of the British Gentry, or the Political Ranks and Dignities of the British Empire. London: T. Hookman, Old Bond Street and Simpkin and Marshall, Stationers' Court, 1827.

This book was written for an audience of foreigners who stay in Great Britain or for British people who have traveled and now live abroad. It includes context about how to be present yourself in foreign courts, to be eligible for foreign military service, to obtain foreign titles leading to being admitted into foreign orders, to purchase foreign property, as well as how to marry a foreigner.

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas F. A Philosophical and Political History of the British Settlements and Trade in North America. London: Aberdeen J. Boyle, 1779.

This book was written from the point of view of a French writer, not a British. Therefore, the context presented must be interpreted from a outsider’s perspective. The author discusses the relationship between Britain with its colonies in North America. Specifically it focuses on how trade allowed the Empire to grow politically and economically.


Benchimol, Alex. Intellectual Politics and Cultural Conflict in the Romantic Period. Great Britain: MPG Books Group, 2010.

After his recent, intricate study of the cultural production and modes of intellectual practices of the public sphere during the Romantic Period, Alex Benchimol is able to give a historically informed new view on the politics and cultural conflicts during the era. He explores the development of social criticism alongside the English radical movements.

Vickery, Amanda. Women Priveledge and Power, British Politics, 1750 to the Present. California: Stanford University Press, 2001. (123-167).

The relationship and connections shared between women and British politics is the main theme of this book. It discusses how women achieved public standing and used their political power in Britain from 1750, forwards. This book is composed of multiple essays, which together narrate a continuous and complex story, redefining political activity as well as analyzing the political turning points of British history.


Period Images:

Fecit, R Brookshaw. “George the III. King of Great Britain.” British Museum. Web Image. <>.

Fouché, P. “Caroline Herschel Taking Notes as Her Brother William Observes on March 13, 1781, the Night William Discovered Uranus.” Brooklyn Museum. Web Image. <>.

Holland, William. “Political Astronomy”. British Museum, 1805. Web Image. <>.

Primary Texts:

Craik, George Lillie and Charles MacFarlane. The Pictorial History of England During the Reign of George the Third: 1785-1791. Great Britain: C. Knight, 1842.

Maunder, Samuel. The universal class-book: a ser. of reading lessons. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844. < id=iukDAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA442&dq�54� william+herschel&hl=en&ei�54� LxG6TYm-FoyCtgeA9dTeBA&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v�54� onepage&q=william%20herschel& f=false>.

Philosophical Society, The European Magazine and London Review, vol. 15. London: J. Cornhill, 1789. Web.

Royal Society, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 73. London: Royal Society, 1783. Web.

“The Gordon Riots, 1780.” British Library. The British Library Board. The British Library Board, 1782. Web. 25 April 2011. < artimages/maphist/war/ gordonriots/gordonriots.html>.

Secondary Texts:

Colley, Linda J. "18th-century Britain, 1714-1815." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. < EBchecked/topic/615557/United- Kingdom/44902/Britain-from- 1754-to-1783?anchor=ref483339> .

Crosland, Maurice. "Relationships between the Royal Society and the Acadmie des Sciences in the Late Eighteenth Century." Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 59, No. 1 (pg. 25-34). The Royal Society, 2005. Web. <>.

Gingerich, O. “The Naming of Uranus and Neptune.” Astronomical Society of the Pacific leaflets, Vol. 8 p. 9. Harvard, 1958. Web. <>.

Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder. New York: Vintage, 2008.

Murrin, John M. and Johnson, Paul E. and McPherson, James M. and Gerstle, Gary and Rosenberg, Emily S. Liberty, Equality, Power, A History of the American People: To 1877. California: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. < id=Hlyz-YK4oG8C&pg=PA133&sig�58� N9ajS15gK8am8B44j2i3Y8oiitE& hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false>.

Wiki Hyperlinks:

Keats, John. “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer.” The Examiner (p. 762.) 1816. Web.

Royal Society, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 73. London: Royal Society, 1783. Web.

Sigourney, Lydia Howard. “The Georgian Planet”. Poems by the Author of Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse. (p. 87-88). Boston: S.G. Goodrich, 1827. Web.

Other Hyperlinks:

Abbott, Lemuel Francis. “Sir William Herschel.” National Portrait Gallery. 1785. Web.

Bloy, Marjie Ph.D. “William Fitzmaurice/Petty, Earl of Shelburne (1737-1805).” The Victorian Web. Singapore, 2002. Web.

Orans, Lewis P. “Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal.” Pine Tree Web. 2002. Web.

Philosophical Society, The European Magazine and London Review, vol. 15. London: J. Cornhill, 1789. Web.

Rudé, George F. E. “The Gordon Riots: A Study of the Rioters and Their Victims: The Alexander Prize Essay.” JSTOR. 1955. Web.